青岛科技大学2012年硕士研究生入学考试《英语综合考试》试卷

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青岛科技大学2012年硕士研究生入学考试《英语综合考试》试题
  PART I LINGUISTICS (60 points)
  Section I Define the following terms (20 points)
  Give the definition of each term in no less than 50 words.
  1. paradigmatic relations
  2. displacement
  3. dialect
  4. applied linguistics
  Section II Essay questions (40 points)
  Answer each of the following questions in no less than 100 words.
  1.What is cohort theory?
  2.What is speech act theory?
  3.What does Chomsky mean by Language Acquisition Device?
  4. What is the difference between langue and parole?
  PART II TRANSLATION (60 points)
  Section I Translate the following passage into Chinese (20 points)
  Resignation is of two sorts, one rooted in despair, the other in unconquerable hope. The man who has suffered such fundamental defeat that he has given up hope of serious achievement may learn the resignation of despair, and if he does, he will abandon all serious activity. He may camouflage his despair by religious phrases, or by the doctrine that contemplation is the true end of man, but whatever disguise he may adopt to conceal his inward defeat, he will remain essentially useless and fundamentally unhappy. The man whose resignation is based on unconquerable hope acts in quite a different way. Hope which is to be unconquerable must be large and impersonal. Whatever my personal activities, I may be defeated by death, or by certain kinds of diseases; I may be overcome by my enemies; I may find that I have embarked upon an unwise course which cannot lead to success. In a thousand ways the failure of purely personal hopes may be unavoidable, but if personal aims have been part of larger hopes for humanity, there is not the same utter defeat when failure comes.
  --From “On Resignation” by Bertrand Russell
  Section II Translate the following passage into English (20 points)
  阳光滑到玻璃板上。我垂下眼帘,一片温暖的桔红色在轻轻颤动。这是个寂静的早晨。每隔一阵,胡同里传来爆米花那沉闷的响声。阿富汗正进行着战争。一架大型客机在法国南部坠毁。巴勒斯坦游击队袭击以色列定居点……我坐在这里,已经是第三天了,一个字也写不出来。这个世界是多么具体,似乎只在某个具体的地点和时间才有意义。早上洗脸的时候,镜子里那副疲倦而又紧张的神态,真像一只困兽。前几天的报告会上,那伙大学生发出一阵阵嘘声,有人还递来这样的条子:“你能代表我们吗?别不要脸了!”麦克风刺耳的交流声给了我沉默的机会。对那些自命不凡的家伙,又能说些什么呢?
  ——节选自北岛《稿纸上的月亮》
  ........
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